§2. Notes on the Preceding 1) 2)


560. Before I came to man's estate, being greatly impressed with Kant's Critic of the Pure Reason, my father, who was an eminent mathematician, pointed out to me lacunæ in Kant's reasoning which I should probably not otherwise have discovered. From Kant, I was led to an admiring study of Locke, Berkeley, and Hume, and to that of Aristotle's Organon, Metaphysics, and psychological treatises,

and somewhat later derived the greatest advantage from a deeply pondering perusal of some of the works of medieval thinkers, St. Augustine, Abelard, and John of Salisbury, with related fragments from St. Thomas Aquinas, most especially from John of Duns, the Scot (Duns being the name of a then not unimportant place in East Lothian), and from William of Ockham. So far as a modern man of science can share the ideas of those medieval theologians, I ultimately came to approve the opinions of Duns, although I think he inclines too much toward nominalism. In my studies of Kant's great Critic, which I almost knew by heart, I was very much struck by the fact that, although, according to his own account of the matter, his whole philosophy rests upon his »functions of judgment,« or logical divisions of propositions, and upon the relation of his »categories« to them, yet his examination of them is most hasty, superficial, trivial, and even trifling, while throughout his works, replete as they are with evidences of logical genius, there is manifest a most astounding ignorance of the traditional logic, even of the very Summulæ Logicales, the elementary schoolbook of the Plantagenet era. Now although a beastlike superficiality and lack of generalizing thought spreads like a pall over the writings of the scholastic masters of logic, yet the minute thoroughness with which they examined every problem that came within their ken renders it hard to conceive in this twentieth century how a really earnest student, goaded to the study of logic by the momentous importance that Kant attached to its details, could have reconciled himself to treating it in the debonnair and dégagé fashion that he did. I was thus stimulated to independent inquiry into the logical support of the fundamental concepts called categories.

561. The first question, and it was a question of supreme importance requiring not only utter abandonment of all bias, but also a most cautious yet vigorously active research, was whether or not the fundamental categories of thought really have that sort of dependence upon formal logic that Kant asserted. I became thoroughly convinced that such a relation really did and must exist. After a series of inquiries, I came to see that Kant ought not to have confined himself to divisions of propositions, or »judgments,« as the Germans confuse the subject by calling them, but ought to have taken account of all elementary and significant differences of form among signs of all sorts, and that, above all, he ought not to have left out of account fundamental forms of reasonings. At last, after the hardest two years' mental work that I have ever done in my life, I found myself with but a single assured result of any positive importance. This was that there are but three elementary forms of predication or signification, which as I originally named them (but with bracketed additions now made to render the terms more intelligible) were qualities (of feeling), (dyadic) relations, and (predications of) representations.

562. It must have been in 1866 that Professor De Morgan honored the unknown beginner in philosophy that I then was (for I had not earnestly studied it for more than ten years, which is a short apprenticeship in this most difficult of subjects), by sending me a copy of his memoir »On the Logic of Relations, etc."1) I at once fell to upon it; and before many weeks had come to see in it, as De Morgan had already seen, a brilliant and astonishing illumination of every corner and every vista of logic. Let me pause to say that no decent semblance of justice has ever been done to De Morgan, owing to his not having brought anything to its final shape. Even his personal students, reverent as they perforce were, never sufficiently understood that his was the work of an exploring expedition, which every day comes upon new forms for the study of which leisure is, at the moment, lacking, because additional novelties are coming in and requiring note. He stood indeed like Aladdin (or whoever it was) gazing upon the overwhelming riches of Ali Baba's cave, scarce capable of making a rough inventory of them. But what De Morgan, with his strictly mathematical and indisputable method, actually accomplished in the way of examination of all the strange forms with which he had enriched the science of logic was not slight and was performed in a truly scientific spirit not unanimated by true genius. It was quite twenty-five years before my studies of it all reached what may be called a near approach toward a provisionally final result (absolute finality never being presumable in any universal science); but a short time sufficed to furnish me with mathematical demonstration that indecomposable predicates are of three classes: first, those which, like neuter verbs, apply but to a single subject; secondly, those which like simple transitive verbs have two subjects each, called in the traditional nomenclature of grammar (generally less philosophical than that of logic) the »subject nominative« and the »object accusative,« although the perfect equivalence of meaning between »A affects B« and »B is affected by A« plainly shows that the two things they denote are equally referred to in the assertion; and thirdly, those predicates which have three such subjects, or correlates. These last (though the purely formal, mathematical method of De Morgan does not, as far as I see, warrant this) never express mere brute fact, but always some relation of an intellectual nature, being either constituted by action of a mental kind or implying some general law.

563. As early as 1860, when I knew nothing of any German philosopher except Kant, who had been my revered master for three or four years, I was much struck with a certain indication that Kant's list of categories might be a part of a larger system of conceptions. For instance, the categories of relation — reaction, causality, and subsistence — are so many different modes of necessity, which is a category of modality; and in like manner, the categories of quality — negation, qualification, degree, and intrinsic attribution — are so many relations of inherence, which is a category of relation. Thus, as the categories of the third group are to those of the fourth, so are those of the second to those of the third; and I fancied, at least, that the categories of quantity, unity, plurality, totality, were, in like manner, different intrinsic attributions of quality. Moreover, if I asked myself what was the difference between the three categories of quality, the answer I gave was that negation was a merely possible inherence, quality in degree a contingent inherence, and intrinsic attribution a necessary inherence; so that the categories of the second group are distinguished by means of those of the fourth; and in like manner, it seemed to me that to the question how the categories of quantity — unity, plurality, totality — differ, the answer should be that totality, or system, is the intrinsic attribution which results from reactions, plurality that which results from causality, and unity that which results from inherence. This led me to ask, what are the conceptions which are distinguished by negative unity, qualitative unity, and intrinsic unity? I also asked, what are the different kinds of necessity by which reaction, causality, and inherence are distinguished? I will not trouble the reader with my answers to these and similar questions. Suffice it to say that I seemed to myself to be blindly groping among a deranged system of conceptions; and after trying to solve the puzzle in a direct speculative, a physical, a historical, and a psychological manner, I finally concluded the only way was to attack it as Kant had done from the side of formal logic.


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